By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
- draw the PBL and its diurnal variation
- perform Reynolds averaging on an equation and derive an equation for the turbulent parts
- explain kinematic fluxes
- show vertical motion using eddy fluxes
- explain turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and its behavior
- sketch the surface energy budget for different conditions
- 11.7: Frozen - The Taylor Hypothesis
- Taylor’s hypothesis says that we can assume that the turbulent eddies (which we can think of as large air parcels) are frozen as they advect past the sensor and thus the change in temperature within each eddy is negligible.
- 11.9: How Kinematic Fluxes Move Air Vertically
- We can look at the concept of kinematic flux. A flux is the transfer of some variable per unit area per unit time. Generally in meteorology, we care about variables like mass, heat (i.e., temperature), kinetic energy, moisture, momentum. Those who study the atmosphere's composition are also interested in the flux of chemicals emitted into the atmosphere from the surface and the flux of atmospheric pollutants, such as ozone, back to Earth's surface.
- 11.12: What other fluxes are important?
- We have focused on the sensible heat flux up to now, but turbulence creates other vertical fluxes. There are many vertical turbulent fluxes, but two important ones are the latent heat flux, which involves the vertical transport of water vapor, and the horizontal momentum flux, which involves the vertical transport of horizontal wind.
Thumbnail: Eddies exist across the world’s oceans and can help fuel hurricanes. (Public Domain; NASA).