Maps and mapping are essential components of any and all geographic information systems (GISs). For instance, maps constitute both the input and output of a GIS. Hence a GIS utilizes many concepts and themes from cartography, the formal study of maps and mapping. Therefore, in order for us to become proficient with GISs, we need to learn more about cartography, maps, and mapping. The first part of this chapter defines what a map is and describes a few key map types. Next, cartographic or mapping conventions are discussed with particular emphasis placed upon map scale, coordinate systems, and map projections. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the process of map abstraction as it relates to GISs. This chapter provides the foundations for working with, integrating, and making maps with GISs.