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Geosciences LibreTexts

1: Lecture Notes

  • Page ID
    1345
    • 1.1: Course Information
      Business information for the class (2016)
    • 1.2: 2. Fluid Flow 1
      Reynolds number, laminar versus turbulent flow, boundary layer, laminar sublayer, bed shear stress, review of Walther's Law (2017)
    • 1.3: 3. Fluid Flow 2
      Bed shear stress, Bernouli Effect, bedload and suspended sediment, Hjulstrom diagram (2019)
    • 1.4: 4. Bedforms
      Stratification, lamination, bedding, bedforms, ripples, dunes, upper planar lamination (2019)
    • 1.5: 5. Bedforms Continued and Facies Introduction
      Bedforms continued, plus an introduction to the concept of sedimentary facies. (2019)
    • 1.6: 6. Turbidites and Stratigraphy
      Turbidites provide a good summary of the ideas we have been talking about, e.g. facies and sedimentary structures related to flows. Turbidites are deposited from slurries of sediment and water in any standing body of water (lakes, oceans).   A description of turbidites as an example of facies. Stratigraphy as the distribution of rock in space and time. (2019)
    • 1.7: 7. Weathering and Erosion
      The formation of sediment through weathering.  Mass transport of sediment. (2017)
    • 1.8: 8. Rivers
      Sediment transport by rivers, associated depositional environments, and fluvial deposits. Rivers are responsible for most sediment transport from mountains to lowlands and the oceans. They do the most to even out the topography that tectonic processes create. Rivers consist of channel, bank and overbank or floodplain deposits. Most of the sediment and many river characteristics are controlled by the highest common flow speeds.
    • 1.9: 9. Deltas, Estuaries, Marine Processes Part 1
      Sediment transport and sedimentary structures due to waves, storms, and tides.  Plus, an introduction to deltas and estuaries (continued in the next lecture). (2017)
    • 1.10: 10. Marine Processes 2
      Shorelines are the interface between the land and the oceans. Their characteristics vary depending on the balance of sediment supply and transport processes. When the sediment supply from rivers is large compared to the rate at which transport processes redistribute the sediment, deltas form, building out into the ocean. If sediment supply is low compared to the rate of sediment transport seaward of the shoreline, the shoreline erodes back.
    • 1.11: 12. Interpreting Stratigraphic Columns
      Five steps to analyzing a stratigraphic column (2017)
    • 1.12: 13. Siliclastic Shorelines and Estuaries
      The vast majority of ancient sedimentary rocks accumulated in near-coastal depositional environments. These environments have sediment supplied by rivers and the sediment gets deposited just below sea level due to the rapid decrease in flow speed as rivers enter the oceans. The overall geometry and characteristics of shore lines are generally determined by several factors.
    • 1.13: 14. Carbonates
      Carbonates form from ions in water, with loose grains transported like siliciclastic sediment but organisms like corals directly forming rock. Carbonates play a critical role in the carbon cycle and the biosphere. (2017)
    • 1.14: 15. Chronostratigraphy - Event, Magneto, Bio
      ​The idea behind chronostratigraphy is to correlate rocks that formed at the same time. This is useful for reconstructing events and depositional environments in earth history as well as finding resources like oil. There are several techniques that can be used for chronostratigraphy, including: event stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy. Here, I will address event stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and biostratigraphy.

    Contributors

    • Dawn Sumner (Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, UC Davis)