7.4: Metamorphic Grade
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Metamorphic grade refers to the range of metamorphic change a rock undergoes, progressing from low (little metamorphic change) grade to high (significant metamorphic change) grade. Low-grade metamorphism begins at temperatures and pressures just above sedimentary rock conditions. The sequence slate → phyllite → schist → gneiss illustrates an increasing metamorphic grade.
Geologists use index minerals that form at certain temperatures and pressures to identify metamorphic grade. These index minerals also provide important clues to a rock’s sedimentary protolith and the metamorphic conditions that created it. Chlorite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, and staurolite are index minerals representing a respective sequence of low-to-high grade rock. The figure shows a phase diagram of three index minerals—sillimanite, kyanite, and andalusite—with the same chemical formula (Al2SiO5) but having different crystal structures (polymorphism) created by different pressure and temperature conditions.
Some metamorphic rocks are named based on the highest grade of index mineral present. Chlorite schist includes the low-grade index mineral chlorite. Muscovite schist contains a slightly higher grade muscovite, indicating a greater degree of metamorphism. Garnet schist includes the high-grade index mineral garnet and indicating it has experienced much higher pressures and temperatures than chlorite.