- Planktonic: applies to organisms that float or drift with flowing currents (zooplankton are animals, phytoplankton are plants.)
- Nektonic: applies to organism that actively move swim by their own means.
- Pelagic: means relating to the open sea, chiefly shallow layers. Planktonic and nektonic organisms live in open water (more in chapter 16).
- Benthic: means relating to, or occurring at the bottom of a body of water (oceans, lakes), relates to bottom-dwelling organism (more in chapter 15).
|The term benthic applies to:|
|• shoreline and nearshore environments (littoral and estuarine)|
|• littoral (pertaining to the shore and very near shore of ocean or lake)|
|• estuarine (pertaining to transition from river to ocean settings)|
|• neritic (pertaining to the seabed in shallow ocean and deep water settings)|
|• limnetic (pertaining to lakes)|
- Terrestrial refers to land environments (desert, mountain, rivers, etc) - some marine predators live in terrestrial environments.
|* Autotrophic: Produce their own food (primary producers)|
|* Heterotrophic: Eat other things (living or dead) (consumers - primary, secondary, and tertiary).|
|Feeding strategies of heterotrophic marine organisms:|
|* Filter feeding: ex: shellfish|
|* Deposit feeding: Eat deposits of dead or decaying matter|
|* Carnivorous feeding: Capture and eat it!|