1. This form of primary productivity that uses solar radiation. 99.9% of the ocean’s biomass relies directly or indirectly on this process for food:
2. A form of primary productivity that uses chemical reactions (involving mostly sulfur compounds) to generate food that do not involve energy from sunlight.
3. A trophic pyramid exemplifies feeding levels within an ecosystem. Planktonic herbivores would be considered:
a. Tertiary consumers.
b. Secondary consumers.
c. Primary consumers.
d. Primary producers.
4. Which of the following would NOT be considered a golden algae?
5. There are many species of seaweeds (macroscopic plants that can tolerate marine water), some of
which are edible by humans. Seaweeds include types of:
a. Brown algae.
b. Green algae.
c. Red algae.
d. all of the above.
6. The top layer of the ocean (down to about 200 meters) is called the neritic zone on continental shelves and the pelagic zone in deeper open ocean settings. The top 200 meters of the ocean is:
a. part of the euphotic zone where all photosynthesis takes place.
b. the part of the ocean most likely to have a thermocline.
c. is mostly above the oxygen minimal zone (OMZ).
d. all of the above.
7. The bottom parts of the ocean that totally dark even during daylight hours is called:
a. the littoral zone.
b. the aphotic zone.
c. the epipelagic zone.
d. the benthic zone.
8. The depth in the oceans where respiration (consumption) equals photosynthesis production is called:
a. the CCD.
b. compensation depth.
c. Euphotic Zone.
d. Epipelagic Zone.
9. The region of the world oceans that has a strong thermocline that mostly prevents mixing of cold deep nutrient rich water with surface water is:
a. the tropical regions.
b. the temperate regions.
c. the polar regions.
d. The euphotic zone.
10. Nutrients are not like food, they are more like a fertilizer. Major nutrients in need for biological activity include nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, iron, zinc, and copper. Sources of nutrients include all EXCEPT which of the following?
a. Upwelling of waters from deep ocean
b. Rock weathering and erosion on land and the seafloor
c. Decaying organic matter floating in the ocean or sinking to the seafloor
d. Sunlight in the euphotic zone