Coastlines on Active and Passive Continental Margins
In North America, the Pacific Coast is an active continental margin, whereas the Atlantic Coast is a passive continental margin (Figures 12-11 and 12-12).
An active continental margin is a coastal region that is characterized by mountain-building activity including earthquakes, volcanic activity, and tectonic motion resulting from movement of tectonic plates. Active margins typically have a narrower and steeper continental shelf and slope. They can also be subsiding or uplifting. Active continental margins are also associated with subduction zones, often include a deep offshore trench. The Pacific Coast is an active margin that is characterized by narrow beach, steep cliffs, rugged coastlines with headlands and sea stacks (see features discussed below).
Passive continental margins occur where the transition between oceanic and continental crust which is not an active plate boundary. Passive margins are characterized by wide beaches, barrier islands, broad coastal plains. Offshore passive margins typically have a wider and flatter continental shelf and slope. They are usually subsiding. Examples of passive margins are the Atlantic and Gulf coastal regions which represent setting where thick accumulations of sedimentary materials have buried ancient rifted continental boundaries formed by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean basin.