Energy and mineral resources are vital to modern society, and it is the role of a geologist to locate these resources for human benefit. As environmental concerns have become more prominent, the value of the geologist has not decreased, as they are still vital in locating and identifying the least intrusive methods of extraction.
Energy resources are general grouped as being renewable or nonrenewable. Geologists can aid in locating the best places to exploit renewables resources (e.g. locating a dam), but are commonly tasked with finding nonrenewable fossil fuels. Mineral resources are also grouped in two categories: metallic and nonmetallic. Minerals have a wide variety of processes that concentrate them to economic levels, and are usually mined via surface or underground methods.