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7.8: Review and Additional Resources

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    Peak surrounded by fog
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Review and assess your learning. Start with the "Important Terms and Concepts" to ensure you know the terminology related to the topic of the chapter and concepts discussed. Then, test your overall understanding by taking the "Self-assessment quiz".

    Important Terms and Concepts \(\PageIndex{1}\)
    • Phase change
      Phase changes of water
      Phase Changes of Water
    • Evaporation
      the phase change of a liquid to a gas
    • Transpiration
      the transfer of water into the air via leaf pores or stomata.
    • Humidity
      a measure of the water vapor content of the air.
    • Saturation
      "holding all the moisture it can"
    • Specific humidity
      the weight of water vapor in the air per unit weight of air, which includes the weight of water vapor.
    • Mixing ratio
      the weight of water vapor per unit weight of dry air.
    • Vapor pressure
      the partial pressure created by water vapor.
    • Saturation vapor pressure
      the pressure that water vapor creates when the air is fully saturated.
    • Relative humidity
      the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to its saturation point.
    • Condensation
      the phase change of water vapor into a liquid
    • Condensation nuclei
      act as a platform for condensation to take place, increasing the size of a droplet and decreasing surface tension.
    • Dew
      small droplets of water that form as a result of condensation.
    • Fog
      a cloud that forms near the ground
    • Radiation Fog
      forms during the evening under cloudless skies and with little to no wind
    • Steam Fog
      occurs when cool dry air settles over a warm, moist surface
    • Advection Fog
      forms when warm and moist air travels over a cool surface.
    • Upslope Fog
      forms when moist air if forced up a slope
    • Frontal Fog
      associated with weather fronts, especially a warm front.
    • Saturated Adiabatic rate
      If the air is saturated, the rate of temperature change is .6oC/100 meters.
    • Dry Adiabatic Rate
      If the air is dry, the rate of temperature change is 1oC/100 meters.
    • Stable air
      Stable atmospheric conditions prevail when the environmental lapse rate is less than the saturated adiabatic rate.
    • Unstable air
      Air is unstable when the environmental lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic rate.
    • Cirrus cloud
      appear as wispy thin veils or detached filaments composed mostly of ice.
    • Cirrostratus
      a transparent, whitish veil of cloud that usually covers much of the sky.
    • Altostratus
      formless layer of grayish cloud that cover most if not all the sky.
    • Stratus
      appear as a uniform dark-gray layer of clouds covering the entire sky.
    • Cumulus
      appear as small, cotton ball-like clouds that generally form by convection.
    • Nimbostratus
      dark-gray layer of clouds that cover the entire sky. The prefix "nimbo" indicates that these clouds are precipitating.
    • Cumulonimbus
      form during very unstable conditions.
    Self-Assessment Quiz \(\PageIndex{1}\)
    1. The highest relative humidity for the day
      1. is usually around sunrise when the air temperature is coolest.
      2. is usually later in the afternoon when the air temperature is the warmest.
      3. is right at noon
      4. is at midnight
    2. If the temperature of the air increases without additional water vapor being added to the air the relative humidity will likely
      1. increase
      2. decrease
      3. stay the same
      4. temperature has no impact on relative humidity
    3. On a day in mid-June a parcel of air and the air that surrounds it at ground level are found to have the same temperature. You also find that the ELR is greater than the DAR on that day. If the parcel is given an upward push
      1. the air would be stable
      2. the air would be unstable
      3. the parcel and surrounding air will still have the same temperature
      4. none of the above
    4. A fog that forms when warm, moist air comes in contact with a cool surface is called
      1. a steam fog
      2. an upslope fog
      3. a radiation fog
      4. an advection fog
    5. The ice crystal growth model
      1. applies to cold clouds
      2. applies to mid and high latitude situations
      3. requires the presence of super-cooled water
      4. all the above
    6. The weight of water vapor per unit weight of dry air is
      1. the mixing ratio
      2. the relative humidity
      3. the absolute humidity
      4. the vapor pressure
    7. Thin, wispy high clouds composed of ice crystals are
      1. cumulus clouds
      2. cirrus clouds
      3. stratus clouds
      4. cumulonimbus clouds
    8. Latent heat
      1. is stored in water molecules when condensation occurs
      2. is converted to sensible heat when water vapor condenses
      3. is used to raise the temperature of the water
      4. relates to none of the above
    9. Radiation fog
      1. is more likely to form during the day
      2. is more likely to form at night
      3. forms when it is windy
      4. none of the above
    10. Frost is a product of
      1. evaporation
      2. condensation
      3. sublimation
      4. deposition
    1. A
    2. B
    3. B
    4. D
    5. D
    6. A
    7. B
    8. B
    9. B
    10. D

    Additional Resources

    Use these resources to further explore the world of geography

    A World of Change: El Niño, La Niña, and Rainfall (NASA Earth Observatory)

    This page titled 7.8: Review and Additional Resources is shared under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Michael E. Ritter (The Physical Environment) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.

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