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2.9: Review and Additional Resources

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    Space shuttle picture of the Hawaiin Islands
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Assess your learning. Start with the "Important Terms and Concepts" to ensure you know the terminology related to the topic of the chapter and concepts discussed. Then, test your overall understanding by taking the "Self-assessment quiz".

    Important Terms and Concepts \(\PageIndex{1}\)
    • System
      a collection of interacting objects
    • Open system
      allow energy and mass to pass across the system boundary.
    • Closed System
      allows energy but not mass across its system boundary
    • Isolated system
      allows neither mass or energy to pass across the system boundary
    • Lithosphere
      the solid Earth
    • Hydrosphere
      "water sphere"
    • Biosphere
      all living organisms
    • Atmosphere
      the gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth
    • Positive feedback
      a process that aims to amplify or inhibit an action (moves towards extremes)
    • Negative feedback
      self-regulatory system aiming to stabilize or establish equilibrium
    • Steady-state equilibrium
      constant flow. constant over time
    • Dynamic equilibrium
      a state of balance between continuing processes
    • Exogenic process
      processes driven by exogenic forces that primarily derive their energy from solar radiation.
    • Endogenic process
      processes that get their energy from endogenic forces originating deep within the Earth.
    • Nitrogen Cycle
      Nitrogen Cycle
    • Oxygen Cycle
      oxygen cycle
    • Carbon Cycle
      Carbon cycle
    • Hydrologic Cycle
      The hydrologic cycle
      the movement of water through its various stores within the Earth system
    Self-Assessment Quiz \(\PageIndex{1}\)
    1. The Earth system is considered
      1. an open system
      2. a closed system
      3. an isolated system
      4. None of the above
    2. Which of the following was pulled inward to create the Earth's core during the later accretion phase?
      1. Magnesium
      2. Silicon
      3. Aluminum
      4. Iron
    3. A change in a system property that encourages further system change is called
      1. a positive feedback
      2. a negative feedback
      3. a threshold
      4. an equilibrium trigger
    4. Earth's shape is described as
      1. a true sphere.
      2. an oblate ellipsoid.
      3. a disk.
      4. none of the above.
    5. The shortest distance between two points on a sphere is
      1. an arc of a great circle.
      2. an arc of a small circle.
      3. an oblate ellipsoid.
      4. a straight line.
    6. Which of the following would act to keep a system in a state of equilibrium?
      1. a positive feedback
      2. a negative feedback
      3. a threshold
      4. an equilibrium trigger
    7. The equatorial bulge is due to
      1. the gravitation attraction of the Moon.
      2. the gravitation attraction of the Sun.
      3. the centrifugal force of Earth rotation
      4. none of the above.
    8. The hydrosphere is an example of
      1. an isolated system
      2. an open system
      3. a closed system
      4. none of the above
    9. Though the atmosphere's temperature has varied throughout geologic history, much of the time it has been considered to be
      1. in a state of dynamic equilibrium
      2. in steady-state equilibrium
      3. in a non-equilibrium state
      4. in a geo-equilibrium state
    10. Earthquakes are generated by ______ sources of energy.
      1. endogenic
      2. exogenic
      3. both endogenic and exogenic
      4. none of the above
    1. B
    2. D
    3. A
    4. B
    5. A
    6. B
    7. C
    8. B
    9. A
    10. A

    Additional Resources

    Use these resources to further explore the world of geography

    Focus on The Physical Environment: "Science on a Sphere: Earth System Overview" NOAA

    Connections: "Dimming the Sun" Nova - air pollution's effect on solar radiation and global warming. Support site and program transcript. (2006)

    Physical Geography Today: Real Time Geomagnetism monitoring - USGS


    video icon "The Precious Envelope" (Annenberg Media) The World of Chemistry video series "The Earth's atmosphere is examined through theories of chemical evolution; ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect are explained. (Material is somewhat dated but still useful.) Go to the The World of Chemistry site and scroll to "The Precious Envelope". One-time, free registration may be required to view film.

    audio icon "Is Global Warming Nurturing Parasites?" All Things Considered June 20, 2002.

    video icon Earth Revolution NASA JPL

    This page titled 2.9: Review and Additional Resources is shared under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Michael E. Ritter (The Physical Environment) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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