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2.25: Neogene Period (23 to 2.6 million years ago)

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    Neogene Period (23 to 2.6 million years ago)




    Time Range


    Miocene Epoch

    Animals and plants of the Miocene Epoch are approaching modern life forms in diversity and appearance. Earth was warmer with expanded tropical realms compared to the modern world. The Himalayan Mountains begin to rise as the Indian continental landmass began to collide with Asia. See more about the Miocene: American Museum of Natural History 23 to 5.3 million

    Pliocene Epoch

    Global climates cooled and became dryer with the onset of glaciation cycles. Most families of animals and plants found in the world had ancestral forms during the Pliocene, including humans. Greenland's ice sheet starts to form. South America and North America became linked at the Isthmus of Panama, allowing the cross migration of many species between continents; but also shutting off the migration of species from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. The same kind of interactions took place when Africa collided with Europe. See more about the Pliocene: American Museum of Natural History 5.3 to 2.6
    Calvert Cliffs, Maryland Sea cliffs at Wilder Ranch Zabriskie Point in Death Valley Anza Borrego State Park, California
    Figure 2.63. Miocene-age sedimentary rocks exposed along Chesapeake Bay at Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. Figure 2.64. Pliocene-age sedimentary rocks exposed in sea cliffs near Santa Cruz at Wilder Ranch State Park Figure 2.65. Pliocene-age sedimentary basin fill rocks exposed in Death Valley National Park, California Figure 2.66. Neogene-age sedimentary rocks (Miocene to Pleistocene) crop out in Anza Borrego State Park, California

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