13.8: Induced Seismicity
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The number of significant earthquakes within the central and eastern United States has climbed sharply in recent years. During the thirty-six year period between 1973 and 2008, only 21 earthquakes with a magnitude of 3.0 or greater occurred. During the 5 year period of 2009-2013, 99 earthquakes of that size occurred within the same area, with 659 earthquakes in 2014 alone and well over 800 earthquakes in 2015 just in Oklahoma (see the blue and red line on the graph in Figure 13.15).
Human intervention is apparently the cause, resulting in induced seismicity (earthquakes caused by human activities). Humans have induced earthquakes in the past (for example, impounding reservoirs has led to earthquakes in Georgia), but this rapid increase in induced seismicity has led to much current research into the problem. Evidence points to several contributing factors, all related to types of fluid injection used by the oil industry. Hydraulic fracturing, also referred to as fracking, has been used for decades by oil and gas companies to improve well production. Fluid (usually water, though other fluids are often present) is injected at high pressure into low-permeability rocks in an effort to fracture the rock. As more fractures open up within the rock, fluid flow is enhanced and more distant fluids can be accessed, increasing the production of a well. In the past, this practice was utilized in vertical wells. With the recent advent of horizontal drilling technology, the fracking industry has really taken off. Drillers can now access thin horizontal oil and gas reservoirs over long distances, highly increasing well production in rocks that formerly were not exploited, creating a boom in US gas and oil production. While there have been many reports in the public that blame fracking for all of the increased seismicity rates, this is not entirely the case. Fracking mainly produces very minor earthquakes (less than magnitude 3), though it has been shown to produce significant earthquakes on occasion. The majority of induced earthquakes are caused by the injection of wastewater deep underground. This wastewater is the byproduct of fracking, so ultimately the industry is to blame.
As wells are developed (by fracking or other processes), large amounts of waste fluid, which may contain potentially hazardous chemicals, are created. When the fluids cannot be recycled or stored in retention ponds above ground, they are injected deep underground, theoretically deep enough to not come into contact with oil reservoirs or water supplies. These wastewater wells are quite common and are considered a safe option for wastewater disposal. By injecting this water in areas that contain faults, the stress conditions on the faults change as friction is reduced, which can result in movement along faults (resulting in earthquakes).
For our lab exercise, we will focus on the state of Oklahoma, and the increased seismicity there (Figure 13.16). The USGS has focused some research on the seismicity in Oklahoma and determined that the main seismic hazard within the state is the disposal of wastewater from the oil and gas industry by deep injection, though some smaller quakes (magnitude 0.6 to 2.9) have been shown to correlate directly to fracking. A 50% increase in earthquake rate has occurred within the state since 2013. One large earthquake of 5.7 magnitudes struck in November 2011 and has been linked to an active wastewater injection site ~200 meters away. A 4.7 magnitude earthquake struck in November 2015, too.