Weathering, Erosion, and Sedimentary Rocks
This module includes two chapters that are very closely related. Weathering, the subject of Chapter 5, is the process that breaks down existing Earth materials and leads to the creation of soil. Most materials can be broken down by weathering, but some materials are more susceptible than others. For example, igneous rocks are fairly resistant to weathering, but over long periods of time they still erode away. In addition, there are a number of different processes that cause weathering, including mechanical and chemical processes. Different processes affect different materials at different rates, which leads to the formation of different types of sedimentary rocks, as you will discover as you read through Chapter 6.
We are particularly interested in the history and events that occur on the surface of the Earth both because it is easier to directly observe and test, and it has direct relevance to our lives and our own history. Sedimentary rocks are the pages in which Earth’s history is written, since they contain powerful environmental indicators, traces of life, and chemical signatures that can inform us about a wealth of subjects from the occurrence of ancient catastrophes to the productivity of life.
The identification of sedimentary rocks is more than applying names, since each name is a loaded term that conveys information regarding its history, where it was formed, potentially when it was formed, and the processes that lead to its formation. Each sedimentary rock is a puzzle and by identifying a set of rocks, how they are layered, the fossils within, and patterns in the rocks a geologist can reconstruct an entire environment and ecosystem. Solving these puzzles is both an academic exercise to better understand the world around us as well as a tool for finding the resources that are important to our lives. In particular, fossil fuels as well as many other natural resources are made of, or are contained within, sedimentary rocks such as coal, natural gas, petroleum, salt, and cement, and more. Therefore, a better understanding of sedimentary rocks and how and where they are formed directly influences your everyday life.
At the completion of this module you will be able to:
- Explain why rocks formed at depth in the crust are susceptible to weathering at the surface.
- Describe the main processes of mechanical weathering and its products.
- Describe the main processes of chemical weathering and its products.
- Explain the type of weathering processes that are likely to have taken place to produce a particular sediment deposit.
- Discuss the relationships between weathering and soil formation, the origins of soil horizons, and some of the different types of soil.
- Explain the geological carbon cycle, and how variations in rates of weathering can lead to climate change.
- Describe the differences between cobbles, pebbles, sand, silt, and clay and explain how clast size relates to the mode of transport.
- Describe the various types of clastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and apply your understanding of their characteristics to infer past depositional environments and climates.
- Differentiate between terrestrial and marine depositional environments, and explain how the formation of sedimentary basins can be related to plate tectonic processes.
- Explain the importance of and differences between groups, formations, and members
See the Schedule of Work for dates of availability and due dates.
Be sure to read through the directions for all of this module’s activities before getting started so that you can plan your time accordingly. You are expected to work on this course throughout the week.
- Chapter 5 (Weathering)
- Chapter 6 (Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks)
Module 7 Assignment: Sedimentary Rock Lab
After you complete the reading, you can start working on Module 7 Assignment – Sedimentary Rock Lab.
Module 7 Quiz
Module 7 Quiz has 10 multiple-choice questions and is based on the content of the Module 7 readings and Assignment 7.
The quiz is worth a total of 10 points (1 points per question). You will have only 10 minutes to complete the quiz, and you may take this quiz only once. Note: that is not enough time to look up the answers!
Make sure that you fully understand all of the concepts presented and study for this quiz as though it were going to be proctored in a classroom, or you will likely find yourself running out of time.
Keep track of the time, and be sure to look over your full quiz results after you have submitted it for a grade.
Your Questions and Concerns…
Please contact me if you have any questions or concerns.
General course questions: If your question is of a general nature such that other students would benefit from the answer, then go to the discussions area and post it as a question thread in the “General course questions” discussion area.
Personal questions: If your question is personal, (e.g. regarding my comments to you specifically), then send me an email from within this course.
- Module 7: Weathering, Erosion, and Sedimentary Rocks. Authored by: Anne Huth. Provided by: Pima Community College. Located at: http://cc.pima.edu/~lumen/glg101/module%20parts%20-%20LUMEN/Module7/L_Mod7.html. License: CC BY: Attribution
- Physical Geology, Adapted by Anne Huth, Pima Community College. Authored by: Steven Earle. Located at: https://opentextbc.ca/geology/. License: CC BY: Attribution
- Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology, Adapted by Anne Huth, Pima Community College. Authored by: Bradley Deline, Randa Harris, and Karen Defend. Located at: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/BookDetail.aspx?bookId=506. License: CC BY: Attribution
- Figure 1: View of Monument Valley from Hunt's Mesa. Authored by: Gleb Tarro. Provided by: Wikimedia Commons. Located at: https://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunts_Mesa#/media/File:Hunts_Mesa-Arizona-March_2010.jpg. License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
- Figure 2: Geological Exfoliation of Granite. Authored by: Wing-Chi Poon. Located at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GeologicalExfoliationOfGraniteRock.jpg. License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
- Figure 3: Weathering, Freeze-Thaw Action. Authored by: Till Niermann. Located at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Weathering_freeze_thaw_action_iceland.jpg. License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
- Figure 6: Garden of the Gods. Authored by: John Fowler. Located at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/snowpeak/6174065038. License: CC BY: Attribution
- Figure 7: Cathedral Rock in Sedona, AZ. Authored by: Gavin M. Roy. Provided by: Flickr. Located at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gavinmroy/102824634. License: CC BY: Attribution
- Figure 8: The Wave. Authored by: Bob Wick for the Bureau of Land Management. Located at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mypubliclands/23824722953/in/photostream/. License: CC BY: Attribution
- Figure 9. Sunrise at Bryce Canyon. Authored by: PiConsti. Located at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/piconsti/16970762211. License: CC BY: Attribution
- Figure 4: Zion's Sedimentary Rocks. Provided by: National Park Service. Located at: https://www.nps.gov/zion/learn/nature/rock-layers.htm. License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright
- Figure 5: Stratigraph Column. Authored by: Geoscientist-in-the-Park, David Tarailo. Located at: https://www.nps.gov/zion/learn/nature/rock-layers.htm. License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright