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Geosciences LibreTexts

3.4: Mineral Identification

  • Page ID
    12677
  • Lesson Objectives

    • Explain how minerals are identified.
    • Describe how color, luster, and streak are used to identify minerals.
    • Explain how the hardness of a mineral is measured.
    • Identify additional properties that can be used to identify some minerals.

    Vocabulary

    • cleavage
    • fracture
    • hardness
    • luster
    • mineralogist
    • streak

    Introduction

    Minerals can be identified by their physical characteristics. The physical properties of minerals are related to their chemical composition and bonding. Some characteristics, such as a mineral’s hardness, are more useful for mineral identification. Color is readily observable and certainly obvious, but it is usually less reliable than other physical properties.

    How are Minerals Identified?

    Mineralogists are scientists who study minerals. One of the things mineralogists must do is identify and categorize minerals. While a mineralogist might use a high-powered microscope to identify some minerals, most are recognizable using physical properties.

    Check out the mineral in Figure  below. What is the mineral’s color? What is its shape? Are the individual crystals shiny or dull? Are there lines (striations) running across the minerals? In this lesson, the properties used to identify minerals are described in more detail.

    This mineral has shiny, gold, cubic crystals with striations, so it is pyrite.

    Color, Streak, and Luster

    Diamonds are popular gemstones because the way they reflect light makes them very sparkly. Turquoise is prized for its striking greenish-blue color. Notice that specific terms are being used to describe the appearance of minerals.

    Color

    Color is rarely very useful for identifying a mineral. Different minerals may be the same color. Real gold, as seen in Figure  below, is very similar in color to the pyrite in Figure above.

    Gold nugget

    This mineral is shiny, very soft, heavy, and gold in color, and is actually gold.

    The same mineral may also be found in different colors. Figure  below shows one sample of quartz that is colorless and another quartz that is purple. A tiny amount of iron makes the quartz purple. Many minerals are colored by chemical impurities.

    Purple quartz, known as amethyst, and clear quartz are the same mineral despite the different colors.

    Streak

    Streak is the color of a mineral’s powder. Streak is a more reliable property than color because streak does not vary. Minerals that are the same color may have a different colored streak. Many minerals, such as the quartz in the Figure above, do not have streak.

    To check streak, scrape the mineral across an unglazed porcelain plate (Figure  below). Yellow-gold pyrite has a blackish streak, another indicator that pyrite is not gold, which has a golden yellow streak.

    The streak of hematite across an unglazed porcelain plate is red-brown.

    Luster

    Luster describes the reflection of light off a mineral’s surface. Mineralogists have special terms to describe luster. One simple way to classify luster is based on whether the mineral is metallic or non-metallic. Minerals that are opaque and shiny, such as pyrite, have a metallic luster. Minerals such as quartz have a non-metallic luster. Different types of non-metallic luster are described in Table  below.

    Six types of non-metallic luster.
    Luster Appearance
    Adamantine Sparkly
    Earthy Dull, clay-like
    Pearly Pearl-like
    Resinous Like resins, such as tree sap
    Silky Soft-looking with long fibers
    Vitreous Glassy

    Can you match the minerals in Figure  below with the correct luster from Table above?

    (a) Diamond has an adamantine luster. (b) Quartz is not sparkly and has a vitreous, or glassy, luster. (b) Sulfur reflects less light than quartz, so it has a resinous luster.

    Hardness

    Hardness is a measure of whether a mineral will scratch or be scratched. Mohs Hardness Scale, shown in Table  below, is a reference for mineral hardness.

    Mohs Hardness Scale: 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest).
    Hardness Mineral
    1 Talc
    2 Gypsum
    3 Calcite
    4 Fluorite
    5 Apatite
    6 Feldspar
    7 Quartz
    8 Topaz
    9 Corundum
    10 Diamond

    With a Mohs scale, anyone can test an unknown mineral for its hardness. Imagine you have an unknown mineral. You find that it can scratch fluorite or even apatite, but feldspar scratches it. You know then that the mineral’s hardness is between 5 and 6. Note that no other mineral can scratch diamond.

    Cleavage and Fracture

    Breaking a mineral breaks its chemical bonds. Since some bonds are weaker than other bonds, each type of mineral is likely to break where the bonds between the atoms are weaker. For that reason, minerals break apart in characteristic ways.

    Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to break along certain planes to make smooth surfaces. Halite breaks between layers of sodium and chlorine to form cubes with smooth surfaces (Figure  below).

    A close-up view of sodium chloride in a water bubble aboard the International Space Station.

    Mica has cleavage in one direction and forms sheets (Figure  below).

    Sheets of mica.

    Minerals can cleave into polygons. Fluorite forms octahedrons (Figure  below).

    This rough diamond shows its octahedral cleavage.

    One reason gemstones are beautiful is that the cleavage planes make an attractive crystal shape with smooth faces.

    Fracture is a break in a mineral that is not along a cleavage plane. Fracture is not always the same in the same mineral because fracture is not determined by the structure of the mineral.

    Minerals may have characteristic fractures (Figure  below). Metals usually fracture into jagged edges. If a mineral splinters like wood, it may be fibrous. Some minerals, such as quartz, form smooth curved surfaces when they fracture.

    Chrysotile has splintery fracture.

    Other Identifying Characteristics

    Some minerals have other unique properties, some of which are listed in Table  below. Can you name a unique property that would allow you to instantly identify a mineral that’s been described quite a bit in this chapter? (Hint: It is most likely found on your dinner table.)

    Some minerals have unusual properties that can be used for identification.
    Property Description Example of Mineral
    Fluorescence Mineral glows under ultraviolet light Fluorite
    Magnetism Mineral is attracted to a magnet Magnetite
    Radioactivity Mineral gives off radiation that can be measured with Geiger counter Uraninite
    Reactivity Bubbles form when mineral is exposed to a weak acid Calcite
    Smell Some minerals have a distinctive smell Sulfur (smells like rotten eggs)
    Taste Some minerals taste salty Halite

    A simple lesson on how to identify minerals is seen in this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JeFVwqBuYl4.

    Lesson Summary

    • Minerals have distinctive properties that can be used to help identify them.
    • Color and luster describe the mineral’s outer appearance. Streak is the color of the powder.
    • Mohs Hardness Scale is used to compare the hardness of minerals.
    • Cleavage or the characteristic way a mineral breaks depends on the crystal structure of the mineral.
    • Some minerals have special properties that can be used to help identify them.

    Review Questions

    1. Which properties of a mineral describe the way it breaks apart?
    2. A mineral looks dry and chalky. What sort of luster does it have?
    3. What causes a mineral to have the properties that it has?
    4. Apatite scratches the surface of an unknown mineral. Which mineral would you use next to test the mineral’s hardness — fluorite or feldspar? Explain your reasoning.
    5. Why is streak more reliable than color when identifying a mineral?
    6. Mineral A has a density of 5 g/cm3. Mineral B is twice as dense as Mineral A. What is the density of Mineral B?
    7. Why do some minerals cleave along certain planes?

    Further Reading / Supplemental Links

    Points to Consider

    • If a mineral is magnetic, do you know for certain what mineral it is?
    • Some minerals are colored because they contain chemical impurities. How did the impurities get into the mineral?
    • What two properties of a mineral sample would you have to measure to calculate its density?
    • How much do minerals reflect the environment in which they formed?