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10.4: Lab Exercise (Part A)

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    5653
  • Materials

    Unpack your HOL Sedimentary Rock bag with rocks labeled S1-S8 following what you see in Figure 10.2. In addition to these samples you will need the following from your HOL Rock Kit:

    1. your glass plate,
    2. your streak plate,
    3. your hand lens, and
    4. your bottle of diluted HCl.

     

    Using Table 10.1, start identifying the rocks by separating out the organic sedimentary rocks from the chemical and biological sedimentary rocks from the clastic sedimentary rocks. Make sure to use all of the tools available including the glass plate and the diluted HCl to identify the chemical and biochemical sedimentary rocks (chert will be harder than glass, limestone will strongly react with dilute HCl, and dolostone will weakly react with dilute HCl when powdered). The streak plate can be helpful in identifying coal, which will easily produce a dark gray streak. Finally, use the hand lens to closely examine the size of the grains in the clastic sedimentary rocks. Once you are confident of your identifications, answer the following questions.

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    Part A – Identifying Sedimentary Rocks

    1. Sample S1 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    2. Sample S1 is an example of a ______________.

    a. Clastic Sedimentary Rock

    b. Organic Sedimentary Rock

    c. Chemical or Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

     

    3. Sample S1 has the following characteristic:

    a. effervesces in diluted HCl acid

    b. weakly effervesces in diluted HCl acid if powdered

    c. contains fossil shells and effervesces in diluted HCl acid

    d. contains pebbles and finer sediments

    e. a sooty or shiny appearance

     

    4. The formation of Sample S1 includes: __________.

    a. chemical weathering, transport of ions, precipitation of minerals, lithification

    b. mechanical weathering, transport of sediment a short distance, deposition of sediment, lithification

    c. photosynthesis, growth of organic material, deposition of organic materials, lithification

    d. chemical weathering, transport of ions, precipitation of minerals as shells by organisms, deposition, lithification

     

    5. Sample S2 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    6. Sample S2 is composed of ___________.

    a. clastic sediments

    b. calcite crystals

    c. dolomite crystals

    d. organic material

    e. calcite shells

     

    7. Closely examine the individual grains in Sample S2. Which of the following is true about its maturity?

    a. It is mature because it contains a variety of different minerals.

    b. It is immature because it is poorly sorted.

    c. It is mature because it contains mostly rounded quartz grains.

    d. It is immature because the grains are jagged.

     

    8. The formation of Sample S2 includes: __________.

    a. chemical weathering, transport of ions, precipitation of minerals, lithification

    b. mechanical weathering, transport of sediment a long distance, deposition of sediment, lithification

    c. mechanical weathering, transport of sediment a very short distance, deposition of sediment, lithification

    d. photosynthesis, growth of organic material, deposition of organic materials, lithification

    e. chemical weathering, transport of ions, precipitation of minerals as shells by organisms, deposition, lithification

     

    9. Sample S3 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    10. Sample S3 is an example of a ________________.

    a. Clastic Sedimentary Rock

    b. Organic Sedimentary Rock

    c. Chemical Sedimentary Rock

    d. Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

     

    11. Sample S3 has the following characteristic:

    a. effervesces in diluted HCl acid

    b. weakly effervesces in diluted HCl acid if powdered

    c. contains fossil shells and effervesces in diluted HCl acid

    d. contains pebbles and finer sediments e. has a sooty or shiny appearance

     

    12. The formation of Sample S3 includes: __________.

    a. chemical weathering, transport of ions, precipitation of minerals, lithification

    b. mechanical weathering, transport of sediment a short distance, deposition of sediment, lithification

    c. chemical weathering, transport of ions, precipitation of minerals, lithification, chemical alteration

    d. photosynthesis, growth of organic material, deposition of organic materials, lithification

    e. chemical weathering, transport of ions, precipitation of minerals as shells by organisms, deposition, lithification

     

    13. Sample S4 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    14. Sample S4 is an example of a ____________.

    a. Clastic Sedimentary Rock

    b. Organic Sedimentary Rock

    c. Chemical Sedimentary Rock

    d. Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

     

    15. Closely examine the individual grains in Sample S4. Which of the following is true about its maturity?

    a. It is immature because it is poorly sorted.

    b. It is mature because it is poorly sorted.

    c. It is mature because it contains mostly rounded grains.

    d. It is immature because it contains mostly rounded grains.

    e. It is immature because it has clay-sized particles.

     

    16. The formation of Sample S4 includes: __________.

    a. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals, lithification

    b. mechanical weathering, transportation of sediment a short distance, deposition of sediments, lithification

    c. photosynthesis, growth of organic material, deposition of organic materials, lithification

    d. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals as shells by organisms, deposition, lithification

     

    17. Sample S5 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    18. Sample S5 is an example of a ____________.

    a. Clastic Sedimentary Rock

    b. Organic Sedimentary Rock

    c. Chemical or Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

     

    19. The history of formation of Sample S5 includes: __________.

    a. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals, lithification

    b. mechanical weathering, transportation of sediment a short distance, deposition of sediments, lithification

    c. photosynthesis, growth of organic material, deposition of organic materials, lithification

    d. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals as shells by organisms, deposition, lithification

     

    20. Sample S5 has the following characteristic:

    a. effervesces in diluted HCl acid

    b. weakly effervesces in diluted HCl acid if powdered

    c. contains fossil shells and effervesces in diluted HCl acid

    d. contains pebbles and finer sediments e. a sooty or shiny appearance

     

    21. Sample S6 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    22. The history of formation of Sample S6 includes: __________.

    a. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals either biologically or inorganically, lithification

    b. mechanical weathering, transportation of sediments a short distance, deposition of sediments, lithification

    c. photosynthesis, growth of organic material, deposition of organic materials, lithification

    d. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals as shells by organisms, deposition, lithification

     

    23. Sample S6 is composed of _________.

    a. clastic sediments

    b. microcrystalline calcite crystals

    c. microcrystalline dolomite crystals

    d. microcrystalline quartz crystals

    e. organic material

     

    24. Sample S6 can be easily recognized by which of the following properties?

    a. conchoidal fracturing

    b. weakly effervesces in diluted HCl acid if powdered

    c. fissule appearance

    d. a sandpaper texture

    e. a sooty or shiny appearance

     

    25. Sample S7 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    26. Compared to Sample S2, how mature is Sample S7?

    a. more mature

    b. less mature

    c. same level of maturity

     

    27. Sample S7 consists of ____________.

    a. fragments of calcite shells

    b. clay-sized sediments

    c. sand-sized sediments

    d. organic material

    e. dolomite crystals

     

    28. Sample S7 can be easily recognized by which of the following properties?

    a. conchoidal fracturing

    b. weakly effervesces in diluted HCl acid if powdered

    c. fissile appearance

    d. a sandpaper texture

    e. a sooty or shiny appearance

     

    29. Sample S8 is called ____________.

    a. Conglomerate             b. Crystalline Limestone             c. Coal             d. Shale             e. Coquina             f. Chert             g. Dolostone             h. Sandstone

     

    30. Sample S8 is an example of a ____________.

    a. Clastic Sedimentary Rock

    b. Organic Sedimentary Rock

    c. Chemical Sedimentary Rock

    d. Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

     

    31. Sample S8 is most likely to weather by which of the following processes?

    a. Dissolution

    b. Frost Wedging

    c. Oxidation

    d. Hydrolysis

    e. The addition and subtraction of heat

     

    32. The history of formation of Sample S8 includes: __________. 

    a. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals, lithification

    b. mechanical weathering, transportation of sediments a long distance, deposition of sediments, lithification

    c. mechanical weathering, transportation of sediments a very short distance, deposition of sediments, lithification

    d. photosynthesis, growth of organic material, deposition of organic materials, lithification

    e. chemical weathering, transportation of ions, precipitation of minerals as shells by organisms, deposition, lithification