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Geology LibreTexts

5: Weathering and Soil (Exercises)

Q5.1 Mechanical weathering

See below

Examples of mechanical weathering [SE]

Q5.2 Chemical weathering

Chemical change Process
Pyrite to hematite oxidation
Calcite to calcium and bicarbonate ions dissolution
Feldspar to clay hydrolysis
Olivine to serpentine hydrolysis
Pyroxene to iron oxide oxidation

Q5.3 Describe the weathering origins of sands

Sand description Possible processes
Fragments of coral etc. from a shallow water area near to a reef in Belize Reefs are constantly being eroded by ocean waves, and the fragments are washed inshore by currents and then further eroded by wave action.
Angular quartz and rock fragments from a glacial stream deposit near Osoyoos Quartz-bearing rocks have been eroded and transported by a glacier. The fragments may have been moved a short distance by a stream, but not enough to produce rounding.
Rounded grains of olivine and volcanic glass from a beach in Hawaii The olivine and glass grains are eroded by waves from volcanic rock and then thoroughly rounded by waves on the beach

Q5.4 The soils of Canada

Soil type Distribution Explanation
Chernozem Southern prairies These are dry-climate soils developed on grasslands
Luvisol Northern prairies and BC interior Soils developed on sedimentary rocks in cool moist climates
Podsol Mountainous parts of BC and large parts of northern Ontario and Quebec Areas with coniferous forests and moderate climates
Brunisol Boreal forest regions Cold forested regions with discontinuous permafrost
Organic Hudson Bay and James Bay lowlands Wetland areas with widespread swamps