This sections consists of a sample Midterm and Final.
Midterm Part I - Multiple Choice
1. The two most abundant gasses in the atmosphere are:
(a) Carbon dioxide and water vapor
(b) Nitrogen and water vapor
(c) Nitrogen and oxygen
(d) Oxygen and carbon dioxide
2. What is located at 58d00'N 175d00'W?
(a) Vancouver, Canada
(b) Stewart Island, New Zealand
(c) The Bearing Sea
(d) The Caspian Sea
3. Water molecules bind tightly to one another. This is a result of ___________.
(a) hydrogen bonding
(b) covalent bonding
(c) atomic friction
(d) molecular hold
4. Sydney, Australia is located at:
(a) 20d40'N, 130d30'E
(b) 40d10'S, 60d11'E
(c) 12d10'N, 152d45'W
(d) 33d55'S, 151d17'E
5. As air sinks down the leeward side of a mountain, it will move into a region of _______ air pressure and will therefore be ________ by compression.
(a) higher; heated
(b) higher; cooled
(c) lower; heated
(d) lower; cooled
6. Which of the following is a cylindrical map projection?
(c) Goode's homolosine
7. -273C (-459.4F) is
(a) the same as 273 Kelvin.
(b) an average boiling temperature.
(c) absolute zero temperature.
(d) not possible on any scale.
8. The atmospheric lapse rate is:
(a) 0.8 degrees C per kilometer.
(b) 2.2 degrees C per kilometer.
(c) 6.4 degrees C per kilometer.
(d) 10.1 degrees C per kilometer.
9. Excess surface water percolates through the zone of ____ to reach the zone of ____ and the water table.
(a) hydration; infiltration
(b) porosity; permeability
(c) water table; water deposit
(d) aeration; saturation
10. Which of the following is true of chloroflurocarbons (CFC)?
(a) The main component of CFC molecules responsible for destroying ozone is the carbon in the CFC molecule.
(b) The main component of CFC molecules responsible for destroying ozone is the fluorine in the CFC molecule.
(c) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone.
(d) Most of the CFC-induced ozone destruction is occurring near the equator, rather than the poles.
11. Which of the following is true regarding ozone depletion in Antarctica?
(a) Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation have not actually been measured at this time.
(b) The atmosphere above Antarctica has experienced a complete loss of protective ozone.
(c) Maximum ozone depletion occurs during the Antarctic spring, following the development of polar stratospheric clouds in winter.
(d) There has actually been a decrease in ultraviolet levels measured at the surface -- which is contrary to what is predicted by ozone depletion models.
12. Which of the major global wind patterns is the most constant and stable?
(b) Trade Winds
(c) Polar Easterlies
(d) Sub-Polar Lows
13. In the horse latitudes, surface winds are ____ because _____.
(a) strong; air converges into this region from both north and south
(b) strong; the horse latitudes are located directly under a high-pressure zone characterized by descending, rather than horizontally moving air
(c) weak; air converges into this region from both north and south
(d) weak; the horse latitudes are located directly under a high pressure zone characterized by descending, rather than horizontally moving air
14. What is located at 35d14'N, 101d49'W?
(a) Santiago, Chile
(b) Tokyo, Japan
(c) Amarillo, TX
(d) San Diego, CA
15. What is located at 36d53'S 174d45'E?
(a) Auckland, New Zealand
(b) Tbilisi, Georgia, US
(c) Hobart, Australia
(d) Georgetown, Guyana
16. Time zones are determined by:
(a) 15 degree increments of latitude.
(b) 15 degree increments of longitude with considerations for political boundaries.
(c) 10 degree increments of longitude.
(d) 10 degree increments of longitude with considerations for political boundaries.
17. Which of the following is false?
(a) GIS stands for Geographic Information Systems
(b) Satellite weather images are an excellent example of remote sensing
(c) GIS represents an important planning tool
(d) A GIS model does not require the use of a map
18. The plane of the earth's orbit around the sun is called the
(c) the plane of the ecliptic
(d) a great circle
19. What is the name of the location on the surface of the earth that receives insolation when the sun is directly overhead? (When this occurs, the sun's rays are perpendicular to this surface.)
(a) strong solar point
(c) subsolar point
20. If you were preparing a map showing the distribution of world climates, which type of map projection would you want to use to allow accurate comparison of areas and regions?
(a) equal area
(b) a gnomic projection
(c) true shape
(d) a Mercator projection
21. While standing at the Tropic of Cancer, Achmid's shadow points north at noon (sun time). Based on this, which of the following can be definitely concluded?
(a) It must be the summer solstice.
(b) It must be the winter solstice.
(c) It must not be the summer solstice.
(d) It must not be the winter solstice.
22. Tokyo, Japan is located at:
(a) 37d30'N 142d10'W
(b) 35d42'N 139d46'E
(c) 140d15'N 36d12'E
(d) 31d08'S 120d54'W
23. Rivers are:
(a) a significant percentage of all surface water on earth.
(b) a location of water storage in the water cycle.
(c) where water may end up after overland flow.
(d) key elements in the global evapotranspiration cycle.
24. The Caspian Sea is located at:
(a) 46d10'S, 20d45'E
(b) 39d30'N, 52d00'E
(c) 3d40'S, 121d10'W
(d) 70d12'N, 18d50'W
25. Both City A and City B are located at the same latitude. City A has a mean annual temperature of 27 degrees C, and a temperature range of 22 degrees C. City B has a mean annual temperature range of 26 degrees C and a temperature range of 10 degrees C. Which city is located in the interior of the continent?
(a) City A
(b) City B
(c) Both are located in the interior of the continent.
(d) Neither is located in the interior of the continent.
26. What is located at 28d54'N, 77d13'E?
(a) Delhi, India
(b) Madrid, Spain
(c) Montevideo, Uruguay
(d) Miami, FL
27. At any one time, the majority of water on earth can be found in the:
(b) Lakes, rivers and streams
(d) Glaciers and snow
28. Longitude is:
(a) an angular distance measured north or south of the equator.
(b) an angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian.
(c) determined by the sun altitude above the horizon.
(d) a method by which geographers measure distance.
29. Global Net Radiation (NETR)
(a) is highest over the poles because of the high albedo of the surface.
(b) is highest in the tropics because the subsolar point is found in this location.
(c) is highest in the tropics because the tropics have a lot of low albedo land.
(d) is highest at the poles because the poles receive diffuse solar energy.
30. Our planet and our lives are powered by
(a) energy derived from inside the earth.
(b) electromagnetic radiation from the sun.
(c) utilities and oil companies.
31. The passage of shortwave and longwave radiation through the atmosphere or water is an example of:
32. Mountain-Valley breezes are caused by:
(a) warmer air descending mountain slopes during the day.
(b) valley air ascending the mountain slopes at night.
(c) warm air rising upslope during the day, and cooler air descending the slopes at night.
(d) gravity drainage.
33. The amount of heat energy present in any substance is expressed as its
(b) latent heat.
(c) sensible heat.
(d) surface motion.
34. As regards average annual precipitation, which of the following is correct?
(a) The highest amounts occur throughout subtropical latitudes.
(b) The drier regions are associated with the eastern portions of major landmasses.
(c) The precipitation tends to increase with latitude toward the poles.
(d) The highest average values occur along the equator.
35. Air pollution acts to ___ the albedo of cities and therefore ___ the urban heat island effect.
(a) increase; enhances
(b) increase; diminishes
(c) decrease; enhances
(d) decrease; diminishes
36. Water vapor in the atmosphere is called:
37. In which of the following areas will thunderstorms NOT develop?
(a) In areas of orographic uplift
(b) In areas of surface convergence
(c) Along frontal boundaries
(d) Under areas of strong high pressure
38. Which of the following is NOT a correct match:
(a) Trade winds= blow toward the equator
(b) Polar easterlies= winds from the polar highs blow into the mid-latitudes
(c) Westerlies= blow from the pole to the sub tropical high belt
(d) Polar highs= cold surface conditions around the poles yield high pressure centers
39. About ___ percent of lightning strikes occur over water.
40. The Sun produces which of the following?
(a) Only visible light and infrared energy
(b) Streams of charged particles and electromagnetic energy
(c) Only solar wind
(d) Only radiant energy that is beneficial to life
41. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in controlling the earth's surface temperature?
(c) Land-water heating differences
42. Which of the following statements is not correct:
(a) The primary reason that we have seasons is that one hemisphere is further from the sun than the other due to the earth's tilt. The hemisphere further from the sun experiences winter.
(b) Land changes temperature more rapidly than water because land has a lower heat capacity and a lower albedo than water.
(c) In January the earth is at its perihelion, the closest distance to the sun it reaches all year. This is why the insolation reaching the southern hemisphere during its summer is more intense than the insolation reaching the northern hemisphere during its summer.
(d) The unequal distribution of sunlight over the spherical, tilted earth is the primary cause of seasons.
43. Radio waves have a ___ wavelength than visible light and are therefore ____ energetic.
(a) longer; less
(b) longer; more
(c) shorter; less
(d) shorter; more
44. Which of the following phase changes involves the greatest number of calories?
45. High latitudes receive less energy than the equatorial regions because
(a) the orientation of the Earth's surface relative to the sun's rays diminishes the intensity of solar radiation at high latitudes.
(b) the Sun's rays must pass through more atmosphere at higher latitudes.
(c) both A & B
(d) none of the above -- each latitude receives the same amount of energy at the surface.
46. If the surface of the earth were to suddenly turn white, the temperature would ____ because _____ insolation would be absorbed.
(a) decrease; less
(b) decrease; more
(c) increase; less
(d) increase; more
47. City A is located west of City B. The time at City A is ______ than that at City B because the earth rotates from ________ when viewed from above the North Pole.
(a) earlier; west to east (counterclockwise)
(b) earlier; east to west (clockwise)
(c) later; west to east (counterclockwise)
(d) later; east to west (clockwise)
48. Some insects can walk on water. This is possible because
(a) they are "enlightened."
(b) because they have no weight.
(c) of a water property known as surface tension.
(d) of a water property known as capillarity.
49. The sky is blue because
(a) the albedo of the Earth is such that blue light is absorbed more than other wavelengths.
(b) the Earth's atmosphere allows every color but blue to be reflected back out to space.
(c) the atmosphere scatters blue light more than any other visible wavelength.
(d) the majority of radiation coming from the sun is in the blue end of the visible spectrum.
50. Land has a ____ heat capacity than water, and therefore it heats up and cools down more _____.
(a) Higher; slowly
(b) Higher; quickly
(c) Lower; slowly
(d) Lower; quickly
Midterm Part II - Essay
Instructions: This portion of the exam is open book, take-home style. Be sure to define all geography terms that you use. Your essay should be between 550 and 700 words.
1. Compare and contrast the following two scenarios: What would happen if the earth were tilted at 45 degrees? What would happen if the earth were not tilted at all? Discuss the effect of the above scenarios on the subsolar point at the equinoxes and solstices as well as the circle of illumination.
Final Part I - Multiple Choice
Instructions: This portion of the midterm is open book. To answer the following multiple choice questions select the most correct answer. In an instructor-led course, you are required to complete this portion of the exam in one sitting. You will have 2 hours to answer the following 50 questions. Each question is worth 2 points.
1. If you started at 20 degrees North, and traveled 40 degrees North, you would be at:
(a) 40 degrees South
(b) 20 degrees South
(c) 40 degrees North
(d) 60 degrees North
2. A self-regulating association of living plants and animals and their nonliving physical environment is termed a/an _______________.
3. Which of the following sequences is arranged in order from shorter wavelength to longer wavelength?
(a) infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays
(b) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared
(c) visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, infrared
(d) ultraviolet, visible, X-rays, infrared
4. The soil at the base of a hill slope is likely to be ____ compared to the soil on the slope.
(c) more nutrient-rich
(d) all of the above
5. Which type of weathering is limited to arid environments?
(b) Frost wedging
(d) Salt crystal growth
6. Tropical cyclones are most likely to form in water that is:
(a) 12-18 degrees C
(b) 26-29 degrees C
(c) 38-42 degrees C
(d) 71-76 degrees C
7. You live in Miami Florida and you are planning a trip to visit your friend in Calgary, Canada. When should you plan your trip? Select the most correct statement.
(a) You should plan your trip in December because of the long days due to the earth being near its perihelion.
(b) You should plan your trip in March to coincide with the solstice.
(c) You should plan your trip in June to take advantage of the subsolar point being directly overhead.
(d) You should plan your trip in June to take advantage of the long days near the solstice.
8. Consider a swamp along the calm backwaters of a river flowing through a flat landscape. Given the nature of this environment which of the following sediments would be least likely to be deposited there?
9. You would expect only slight physical and chemical weathering under natural conditions of
(a) lower mean annual rainfall and temperatures.
(b) temperatures below freezing.
(c) higher temperatures and lower precipitation.
(d) extreme cold and high precipitation.
10. The majority of the Earth's crust is composed of _____ rock.
11. If you were really afraid of earthquakes, which of the following areas would be the safest to live on?
(a) Convergent plate boundary
(b) Divergent plate boundary
(c) Passive plate boundary
(d) Island arc along a subduction zone
12. When the leeward side of a mountain receives less precipitation than the windward side, this is called:
(a) orogenic precipitation.
(b) the mountain rain effect.
(c) the rainshadow effect.
(d) altoprecipitation losses.
13. Which of the following cities receives the most precipitation in July?
14. Which of the following is not used to rate an earthquake on the Richter scale?
(a) The amount of fault slippage that occurred
(b) The size of the subsurface or surface area that ruptured
(c) The amount of death and destruction that occurred
(d) The nature of the ground materials affected by the quake
15. Energy flows through an ecosystem along a circuit called the
(a) food web.
(b) niche order.
(c) trophic place.
(d) food chain.
16. What is located at 55d45'N, 37d35'E?
(a) London, England
(b) Houston, TX
(c) Moscow, Russia
(d) Mexico City, Mexico
17. Which of the following cities has a climate most similar to that of San Francisco, California, US?
18. When the sun, the earth and the moon are in conjunction, the arrangement of these celestial bodies forms a _____ and it results in a _____ tidal range.
(a) line; largest
(b) line; smallest
(c) right angle; largest
(d) right angle; smallest
19. The height of a tsunami grows as it approaches a coastline primarily because
(a) its energy level increases.
(b) its wavelength shortens.
(c) the height of the surf is added to the height of the tsunami.
(d) none of the above is true -- the height of a tsunami remains constant from the time of its origin.
20. An 'A' in the Koppen climate classification system (as in Csa) indicates that
(a) summers are long and hot.
(b) summers are the driest time of year.
(c) winters are the wettest time of year.
(d) winters are long and cold.
21. Which of the following is true regardng mean sea level?
(a) A consistent value has yet to be determined due to all the variables.
(b) It is at the same level along the entire North American coast.
(c) It is calculated based on average tidal levels recorded hourly at a given site over many years.
(d) The sea level along the Gulf Coast is the lowest for the coasts of the lower 48 states.
22. Tornadoes in the United States occur as a result of the interaction of warm, moist _____ air masses with cold, dry ____ air masses.
(a) mT; cP
(b) cP; mT
(c) mP; cP
(d) mT; mP
23. The Earth's crust is roughly made up of _____________.
(a) mantle and core material.
(b) at least 14 plates capable of movement.
(c) a strong, unbroken material.
(d) a brittle, thin material that does not move.
24. The littoral zone extend inland to
(a) the foreshore dune.
(b) the backshore dune.
(c) the trough between the primary and secondary dune.
(d) the highest water line that occurs during a storm.
25. Which of the following is not exogenic in nature?
(c) Mass wasting
(d) Batholith formation
26. Find a Plate Tectonics map (in the atlas or the internet). Which plate is moving the fastest?
(b) North American
27. The Pacific Rim can be characterized as __________.
(a) a place of embayments.
(b) being dominated by estuaries.
(c) being dominated by barrier islands.
(d) tectonically active and emerging.
28. Consider a food chain in which a grasshopper eats grass, the grasshopper is eaten by a frog, and the frog is eaten by a snake. Given these relationships, which of the following is not correctly matched?
(a) grass -- autotroph
(b) grasshopper -- herbivore
(c) frog -- secondary consumer
(d) snake -- primary consumer
29. If you live in an area that was flooded by the 100-year flood last year, you can conclude that
(a) the next 100-year flood will occur in exactly 100 years.
(b) the next 100-year flood will occur in exactly 99 years.
(c) you could be flooded by the 100 year flood again this year.
(d) you can expect a 50 year flood in exactly 24 years.
30. On June 21st, the sun's declination is at
(a) the equator.
(b) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Alice Springs, Australia.
(c) the Tropic of Capricorn.
d) the Tropic of Cancer.
31. What is located at 50d51'N, 4d21'E?
(a) Brussels, Belgium
(b) Paris, France
(c) Hamburg, Germany
(d) Rome, Italy
32. The 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Alaska produced all of the following except:
(a) more than 80 mass movement events.
(b) rotational movements in an Anchorage subdivision.
(c) a Richter scale reading of 8.6.
(d) a strong earthquake but little mass wasting of the landscape.
33. What is located at 60d00'N, 85d00'W?
(a) Quebec, Canada
(b) Dublin, Ireland
(c) Lake Superior
d) Hudson Bay
34. A mass of air is saturated when it reaches the
(a) highest temperature of the day.
(b) lowest temperature of the day.
(c) dew point temperature.
(d) specific humidity point.
35. Look for a map of the Normal Annual Range in Temperature (on the atlas recommended in the syllabus or the internet). What part of the world has the largest annual rage in temperature based on this map?
(a) North Eastern Eurasia
(b) Central North America
(d) The Indian Ocean
36. Beijing, China is located at:
(a) 68d20'N, 182d15'W
(b) 39d55'N, 116d23'W
(c) 39d55'N, 116d23'E
(d) 68d20'N, 182d15'E
37. The largest material which can be carried by a stream is carried as
(a) bed load.
(b) suspended load.
(c) dissolved load.
(d) truck load.
38. Which of the following is true of soil color?
(a) Color does not reflect composition or chemical makeup.
(b) Dark soils always indicate high organic content.
(c) For consistency of description, a soil color chart is employed by soil scientists.
d) Soil color is restricted to the top horizon of the soil pedon.
39. Which of the following cities has the largest temperature range (max - min)?
40. See the July Normal temperature map on page 17 of the atlas recommended in the syllabus. What is the normal temperature range found at 30d00'N, 90d00'W?
(a) -1C to 10C
(b) 10C to 21C
(c) 21C to 32C
(d) Over 32C
41. Which of the following is not true about jet streams?
(a) They are flattened in vertical cross section.
(b) They average 160-480 km wide.
(c) They are strongest in the summer.
(d) There is more than one jet stream.
42. Based on principles discussed earlier in the course, you know that the annual temperature range of places located in the interior of a continent is ____ those places located along the coast at the same altitude.
(a) greater than
(b) less than
(c) the same as
43. If you were driving down the highway and saw mountains composed of layered strata, you could be confident that you were looking at
(a) sedimentary rocks.
(b) extrusive igneous rock.
(c) a shield volcano.
(d) batholiths or laccoliths.
44. Which of the following is NOT true about tides?
(a) They are produced solely by the gravitational pull of the sun.
(b) They are complex daily oscillations in sea level.
(c) They are influenced by the size, depth, and topography of ocean basins.
(d) They are influenced by shoreline configuration and latitude.
45. The reflective quality of a surface is known as its:
46. Climate is ____________________.
(a) the weather of a region.
(b) the short-term condition of the atmosphere.
(c) the long-term atmospheric condition -- including extremes.
(d) a reference to temperature patterns only.
47. In the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, slopes that face ___ have more trees on them because ____.
(a) south; they receive more direct sunshine for photosynthesis
(b) south; they receive more rainfall
(c) north; they are more moist
(d) north; they receive more direct sunshine
48. Ocean floor subducts under continents because ______________.
(a) the ocean floor has a lower density and therefore sinks more easily.
(b) the ocean floor is made of felsic materials and is heavier than continental material.
(c) the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental material.
(d) the weight of the continents is so great that they push the ocean floor material downward.
49. Volcanic activity located away from plate boundaries is associated with _______________.
(a) subduction and melting of plates.
(b) hot spots.
(c) rift zones.
(d) meteor impact.
50. What is the cause of the observation that 'overall earth surface temperature is warmer in July than January'?
(a) Heat capacity & latent heat
(b) Apehelion & perihelion
(c) Hadley cells
(d) The Grossrobin effect
Final Part II - Essay
Instructions: This portion of the exam is open book, take-home style. Be sure to define all geography terms that you use. Your essay should be between 550 and 700 words. Please complete both items below.
1. Discuss the causes of tropical cyclones. Why are the cyclones that annually strike Japan some of the most destructive cyclones in the world?
2. Compare and contrast subduction zone volcanism and hot-spot volcanism.
K. Allison Lenkeit-Meezan (Foothill College)