Weathering is what takes place when a body of rock is exposed to the forces and conditions that exist at Earth’s surface. Weathering is a key part of the process of soil formation, which lies within the top few tens of centimeters of the Earth's surface and is important in sustaining plant growth.
Thumbnail: A stagnogley soil is a typically non-alluvial, non-calcareous, loamy or clayey soil with a relatively impervious, subsurface horizon. Stagnogley soils are related to the pseudogleys and are a type of gleyic soil. (Public Domain; HolgerK).